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SapphireFor the past 15 years single crystal sapphire has been at the cutting edge of semiconductor technology.

A combination of unique chemical, physical, optical and mechanical properties make sapphire the best choice for a broad spectrum of laboratory and industrial applications.
• Chemical resistance.
Sapphire is highly inert and resistant to attack in most process environments including hydrofluoric acid and the fluorine plasma applications commonly found in semiconductor wafer processing (NF3, CF4).

• Mechanical properties.
Sapphire is characterized by high toughness and solidity, and demonstrates excellent resistance in different environments ranging from cryogenic to over 1500°C. Due to this characteristics combined with chemical stability sapphire is widely used in medicine: endoscope and probe lenses, needles for thermal treatment of tumors, scalpels etc.

• Electrical properties.
Sapphire provides a high, stable dielectric constant with the electrical insulation required for LED, RF and microwave applications.

• Optical transmission.
Sapphire is characterized by high transmission in the range of UV to near IR. Given the chemical stability, high temperature and high pressure resistance sapphire is the preferred choice for window / viewport applications in high performance vacuum systems, furnaces, deep sea cameras, fire alarm systems etc.

• Surface properties.
Sapphire can be polished to very high flatness and smoothness for substrate applications and precision mechanical components.

• Thermal properties.
With a melting point over 2000°C, and high thermal conductivity sapphire is often used in many harsh process environments.

• Wear properties.
With high hardness and transparency, sapphire is used for scratch proof windows in high wear applications and for precision mechanical components.

Basic properties

Crystallline structure Hexagonal
a = b = 4.77 Å
c = 13.04
Melting point: 2040°С
Thermal expansion index: 6,7 х 10-6 С parallel to С-axis
Conductivity 46.06 W/m °K at 0°C
Specific resistivity: 5,0 х 10-6 С perpendicular to С-axis
Dielectric Constant average 11.5 (parallel to C-axis)
Density 3,98 g/ cm3
Compressive Strength 2 GPa
Young Modulus 3.6x104 – 4.4x104
Flexural Strength 35-39 daN/ mm2
Tensile Strength ~400 MPa (at approx. 25°C)
Poisson’s Ratio 0.28-0.33
Hardness 9 mohs
1800 Knoop parallel to c-axis
2200 Knoop perpendicular to c-axis
Refraction Index No: 1.768 (c-axis)
Ne: 1.760 (c-axis)
Birefringence (No-Ne) 0.008

Sapphire Transmission

Sapphire Transmission


Sapphire ingots for LED, RF and optical applications

Diameter/Width 5-220 mm
Thickness/Length 25 – 500 mm
Orientation C (0001), M (1010), A (1120), R (1102)
Surface quality As-cut, fine-ground
Ends/Edge Quality As-cut, fine-ground

Sapphire tubes, capillaries and nozzles for mechanical and optical applications: laboratory equipment, semiconductor equipment, optical systems (CVD, plazma reactors, UV treatment of substances, protective sheaths for thermocouples etc.)
Sapphire crucibles for laboratory and semiconductor equipment
Sapphire needles for medical treatment.

Inner Diameter 0.6 - 30 mm
Outer Diameter 2 - 50 mm
Length Up to 600 mm
Orientation Random, C
Surface quality As-grown, fine-ground, 80/50 per MIL-0-13830
Ends/Edge Quality As-cut

Sapphire substrates for LED and RF applications

Diameter 50.8 – 160mm
Thickness 0.3 – 5 mm
Orientation C (0001), M (1010), A (1120), R (1102)
Surface quality EPI-polished (Ra<0.5 nm) suitable for epitaxial growth

Sapphire windows and viewports for UV, visible and near-IR applications (semiconductor equipment, scanners, laser systems, fire alarm systems, deep sea cameras)

Diameter 1-240 mm
Thickness >/=0.15 mm
Orientation Random, M (1010), A (1120), R (1102), C (0001)
Flatness 4 λ per inch
Parallelism <0.5 - 3 angular minutes
Chamfer < /=0.1 - 0.5 mm x 45+/-5 deg
Surface quality 80/50, 60/40, 40/20, 20/10. or 10/5 per MIL-0-13830

Sapphire rods and blanks for LED, RF, optical, mechanical and medical applications

Diameter 1-300 mm
Thickness >/=0.15 mm
Orientation C (0001), M (1010), A (1120), R (1102)
Surface quality As-cut, fine-ground


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